Smoking Cessation

Studies


Northwestern

PI: Bonnie Spring

Smoking and Eating

Users:

225

Person-Days:

3,150

Samples:

136 billion

Sensors

• AutoSense
• MotionSense
• Phone

Description

This study evaluates the feasibility of a just-in-time intervention to delay or prevent smoking relapse in smokers attempting to quit.


Rice

PI: David Wetter

Smoking

Users:

300

Person-Days:

4,200

Samples:

182 billion

Sensors

• AutoSense
• MotionSense
• Phone

Description

This study examines smoking cessation in a population of African American smokers who are attempting to quit.


Utah

PI: David Wetter

Smoking

Users:

300

Person-Days:

4,200

Samples:

182 billion

Sensors

• AutoSense
• MotionSense
• Phone

Description

This study examines the influence of socioeconomic status, social history, contextual and environmental influences, biobehavioral/psychosocial predispositions, and acute momentary precipitants on stress, smoking lapse, and abstinence among 300 smokers attempting to quit.


Moffitt

PI: Christine Vinci

Smoking and Stress

Users:

24

Person-Days:

336

Samples:

15 billion

Sensors

• AutoSense
MotionSense
• Phone

Description

This feasibility study examines the effects of delivering mindfulness strategies via smartphones on key mechanisms underlying smoking cessation among low socioeconomic status, racially/ethnically diverse smokers.


Vermont

PI: Hugh Garavan

Smoking and fMRI

Users:

90

Person-Days:

1,260

Samples:

55 billion

Sensors

• AutoSense
• MotionSense
• Phone

Description

This study examines the multiple neurocognitive processes that have previously been implicated in relapse among smokers who are both successful and unsuccessful in maintaining smoking abstinence.


Publications

  1. Christine Vinci, Aaron Haslam, Cho Y Lam, Santosh Kumar and David W Wetter.
    The use of ambulatory assessment in smoking cessation.. Addictive behaviors, 2018. BibTeX

    @article{Vinci2018,
    	author = "Vinci, Christine and Haslam, Aaron and Lam, Cho Y. and Kumar, Santosh and Wetter, David W.",
    	title = "The use of ambulatory assessment in smoking cessation.",
    	journal = "Addictive behaviors",
    	year = 2018,
    	abstract = {Abstract: Mobile Health (mHealth) interventions are behavioral interventions that are accessible to individuals in their daily lives via a mobile device. Most mHealth interventions consist of multiple intervention components. Some of the components are "pull" components, which require individuals to access the component on their mobile device at moments when they decide they need help. Other intervention components are "push" components, which are initiated by the intervention, not the individual, and are delivered via notifications or text messages. Micro-randomized trials (MRTs) have been developed to provide data to assess the effects of push intervention components on subsequent emotions and behavior. In this paper, we review the micro-randomized trial design and provide an approach to computing a standardized effect size for these intervention components. This effect size can be used to compare different push intervention components that may be included in an mHealth intervention. In addition, a standardized effect size can be used to inform sample size calculations for future MRTs. Here, the standardized effect size is a function of time because the push notifications can occur repeatedly over time. We illustrate this methodology using data from an MRT involving HeartSteps, an mHealth intervention for physical activity as part of the secondary prevention of heart disease.}
    }
    
  2. James M Rehg, Susan A Murphy and Santosh Kumar (eds.).
    Detecting Eating and Smoking Behaviors Using Smartwatches
    . pages 175–201, Springer International Publishing, 2017. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @inbook{Parate2017,
    	pages = "175--201",
    	title = "Detecting Eating and Smoking Behaviors Using Smartwatches",
    	publisher = "Springer International Publishing",
    	year = 2017,
    	author = "Parate, Abhinav and Ganesan, Deepak",
    	editor = "Rehg, James M. and Murphy, Susan A. and Kumar, Santosh",
    	abstract = "Inertial sensors embedded in commercial smartwatches and fitness bands are among the most informative and valuable on-body sensors for monitoring human behavior. This is because humans perform a variety of daily activities that impacts their health, and many of these activities involve using hands and have some characteristic hand gesture associated with it. For example, activities like eating food or smoking a cigarette require the direct use of hands and have a set of distinct hand gesture characteristics. However, recognizing these behaviors is a challenging task because the hand gestures associated with these activities occur only sporadically over the course of a day, and need to be separated from a large number of irrelevant hand gestures. In this chapter, we will look at approaches designed to detect behaviors involving sporadic hand gestures. These approaches involve two main stages: (1) spotting the relevant hand gestures in a continuous stream of sensor data, and (2) recognizing the high-level activity from the sequence of recognized hand gestures. We will describe and discuss the various categories of approaches used for each of these two stages, and conclude with a discussion about open questions that remain to be addressed.",
    	booktitle = "Mobile Health: Sensors, Analytic Methods, and Applications",
    	doi = "10.1007/978-3-319-51394-2_10",
    	url = "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51394-2_10"
    }
    
  3. Andrine Lemieux, Motohiro Nakajima, Soujanya Chatterjee, Hillol Sarker, Nazir Saleheen, Emre Ertin, Santosh Kumar and Mustafa al'Absi.
    Unobtrusive Measurement of Stress and Smoking Psychophysiological Markers in the Natural Environment. In PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE 79(4). 2017, A150–A150. BibTeX

    @inproceedings{lemieux2017unobtrusive,
    	author = "Andrine Lemieux and Motohiro Nakajima and Soujanya Chatterjee and Hillol Sarker and Nazir Saleheen and Emre Ertin and Santosh Kumar and Mustafa al'Absi",
    	title = "Unobtrusive Measurement of Stress and Smoking Psychophysiological Markers in the Natural Environment",
    	booktitle = "PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE",
    	year = 2017,
    	volume = 79,
    	number = 4,
    	pages = "A150--A150"
    }
    
  4. Laura Hiatt, Roy J Adams and Benjamin M Marlin.
    An Improved Data Representation for Smoking Detection with Wearable Respiration Sensors. In Healthcare Informatics (ICHI), 2016 IEEE International Conference on. 2016, 409–409. BibTeX

    @inproceedings{hiatt2016improved,
    	author = "Laura Hiatt and Roy J Adams and Benjamin M Marlin",
    	title = "An Improved Data Representation for Smoking Detection with Wearable Respiration Sensors",
    	booktitle = "Healthcare Informatics (ICHI), 2016 IEEE International Conference on",
    	year = 2016,
    	pages = "409--409",
    	abstract = "This paper proposes a peak-based representation for smoking detection from RIP data as a more robust alternative to the existing segmentation-based representation. The rational for preferring this approach in the presence of noise is that there is much less uncertainty about the location of the peaks in the RIP data than there is about the location of segmentation boundaries. To implement this approach, we first run a peak detection algorithm on the RIP waveform data to extract the peaks (maximum inhalation) and valleys (maximum exhalation) from the input time series. We then extract feature vectors analogous to those used in the segmentation case [1], but defined using relative locations and amplitudes of peaks and valleys. We associate puff (positive) and non-puff (negative) labels with peaks, and learn a classification model to predict the peak labels given the associated feature vectors."
    }
    
  5. Soujanya Chatterjee, Karen Hovsepian, Hillol Sarker, Nazir Saleheen, Mustafa al’Absi, Gowtham Atluri, Emre Ertin, Cho Lam, Andrine Lemieux, Motohiro Nakajima, Bonnie Spring, David W Wetter and Santosh Kumar.
    mCrave: Continuous Estimation of Craving During Smoking Cessation. In Proceedings of the 2016 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing. 2016, 863-874. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @inproceedings{Chatterjee2016Crave,
    	author = "Soujanya Chatterjee and Karen Hovsepian and Hillol Sarker and Nazir Saleheen and Mustafa al’Absi and Gowtham Atluri and Emre Ertin and Cho Lam and Andrine Lemieux and Motohiro Nakajima and Bonnie Spring and David W. Wetter and Santosh Kumar",
    	title = "mCrave: Continuous Estimation of Craving During Smoking Cessation",
    	booktitle = "Proceedings of the 2016 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing",
    	year = 2016,
    	pages = "863-874",
    	publisher = "ACM",
    	abstract = "Craving usually precedes a lapse for impulsive behaviors such as overeating, drinking, smoking, and drug use. Passive estimation of craving from sensor data in the natural environment can be used to assist users in coping with craving. In this paper, we take the first steps towards developing a computational model to estimate cigarette craving (during smoking abstinence) at the minute-level using mobile sensor data. We use 2,012 hours of sensor data and 1,812 craving self-reports from 61 participants in a smoking cessation study. To estimate craving, we first obtain a continuous measure of stress from sensor data. We find that during hours of day when craving is high, stress associated with self-reported high craving is greater than stress associated with low craving. We use this and other insights to develop feature functions, and encode them as pattern detectors in a Conditional Random Field (CRF) based model to infer craving probabilities.",
    	doi = "10.1145/2971648.2971672",
    	url = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2971648.2971672"
    }
    
  6. Terry Bush, Jennifer Lovejoy, Harold Javitz, Brooke Magnusson, Alula Jimenez Torres, Stacey Mahuna, Cody Benedict, Ken Wassum and Bonnie Spring.
    Comparative effectiveness of adding weight control simultaneously or sequentially to smoking cessation quitlines: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health 16(1):1, 2016. URL BibTeX

    @article{bush2016comparative,
    	author = "Terry Bush and Jennifer Lovejoy and Harold Javitz and Brooke Magnusson and Alula Jimenez Torres and Stacey Mahuna and Cody Benedict and Ken Wassum and Bonnie Spring",
    	title = "Comparative effectiveness of adding weight control simultaneously or sequentially to smoking cessation quitlines: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial",
    	journal = "BMC Public Health",
    	year = 2016,
    	volume = 16,
    	number = 1,
    	pages = 1,
    	abstract = "Abstract: BACKGROUND: Prevalence of multiple health risk behaviors is growing, and obesity and smoking are costly. Weight gain associated with quitting smoking is common and can interfere with quit success. Efficacy of adding weight management to tobacco cessation treatment has been tested with women in group sessions over an extended period of time, but has never been tested in real-world settings with men and women seeking help to quit. This paper describes the Best Quit study which tests the effectiveness of delivering tobacco and weight control interventions via existing quitline infrastructures. METHODS: Eligible and consenting smokers (n = 2550) who call a telephone quitline will be randomized to one of three groups; the standard quitline or standard quitline plus a weight management program added either simultaneously or sequentially to the tobacco program. The study aims to test: 1) the effectiveness of the combined intervention on smoking cessation and weight, 2) the cost-effectiveness of the combined intervention on cessation and weight and 3) theoretically pre-specified mediators of treatment effects on cessation: reduced weight concerns, increased outcome expectancies about quitting and improved self-efficacy about quitting without weight gain. Baseline, 6 month and 12 month data will be analyzed using multivariate statistical analyses and groups will be compared on treatment adherence, quit rates and change in weight among abstinent participants. To determine if the association between group assignment and primary outcomes (30-day abstinence and change in weight at 6 months) is moderated by pre-determined baseline and process measures, interaction terms will be included in the regression models and their significance assessed. DISCUSSION: This study will generate information to inform whether adding weight management to a tobacco cessation intervention delivered by phone, mail and web for smokers seeking help to quit will help or harm quit rates and whether a simultaneous or sequential approach is better at increasing abstinence and reducing weight gain post quit. If proven effective, the combined intervention could be disseminated across the U.S. through quitlines and could encourage additional smokers who have not sought cessation treatment for fear of gaining weight to make quit attempts. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01867983 . Registered: May 30, 2013.",
    	publisher = "BioMed Central",
    	url = "http://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-016-3231-6"
    }
    
  7. Acar Tamersoy, Munmun De Choudhury and Duen Horng Chau.
    Characterizing Smoking and Drinking Abstinence from Social Media. In Proceedings of the 26th ACM Conference on Hypertext & Social Media. 2015, 139–148. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @inproceedings{Tamersoy:2015:CSD:2700171.2791247,
    	author = "Tamersoy, Acar and De Choudhury, Munmun and Chau, Duen Horng",
    	title = "Characterizing Smoking and Drinking Abstinence from Social Media",
    	booktitle = "Proceedings of the 26th ACM Conference on Hypertext \& Social Media",
    	year = 2015,
    	pages = "139--148",
    	publisher = "ACM",
    	abstract = {Social media has been established to bear signals relating to health and well-being states. In this paper, we investigate the potential of social media in characterizing and understanding abstinence from tobacco or alcohol use. While the link between behavior and addiction has been explored in psychology literature, the lack of longitudinal self-reported data on long-term abstinence has challenged addiction research. We leverage the activity spanning almost eight years on two prominent communities on Reddit: StopSmoking and StopDrinking. We use the self-reported "badge" information of nearly a thousand users as gold standard information on their abstinence status to characterize long-term abstinence. We build supervised learning based statistical models that use the linguistic features of the content shared by the users as well as the network structure of their social interactions. Our findings indicate that long-term abstinence from smoking or drinking ( one year) can be distinguished from short-term abstinence ( 40 days) with 85% accuracy. We further show that language and interaction on social media offer powerful cues towards characterizing these addiction-related health outcomes. We discuss the implications of our findings in social media and health research, and in the role of social media as a platform for positive behavior change and therapy.},
    	doi = "10.1145/2700171.2791247",
    	url = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2700171.2791247"
    }
    
  8. Nazir Saleheen, Amin Ahsan Ali, Syed Monowar Hossain, Hillol Sarker, Soujanya Chatterjee, Benjamin Marlin, Emre Ertin, Mustafa and Santosh Kumar.
    puffMarker: A Multi-sensor Approach for Pinpointing the Timing of First Lapse in Smoking Cessation. In Proceedings of the 2015 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing. 2015, 999–1010. URL, DOI BibTeX

    @inproceedings{Saleheen:2015:PMA:2750858.2806897,
    	author = "Saleheen, Nazir and Ali, Amin Ahsan and Hossain, Syed Monowar and Sarker, Hillol and Chatterjee, Soujanya and Marlin, Benjamin and Ertin, Emre and al'Absi, Mustafa and Kumar, Santosh",
    	title = "puffMarker: A Multi-sensor Approach for Pinpointing the Timing of First Lapse in Smoking Cessation",
    	booktitle = "Proceedings of the 2015 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing",
    	year = 2015,
    	pages = "999--1010",
    	publisher = "ACM",
    	abstract = "Recent researches have demonstrated the feasibility of detect-ing smoking from wearable sensors, but their performance on real-life smoking lapse detection is unknown. In this pa-per, we propose a new model and evaluate its performance on 61 newly abstinent smokers for detecting a first lapse. We use two wearable sensors — breathing pattern from respira-tion and arm movements from 6-axis inertial sensors worn on wrists. In 10-fold cross-validation on 40 hours of training data from 6 daily smokers, our model achieves a recall rate of 96.9%, for a false positive rate of 1.1%. When our model is applied to 3 days of post-quit data from 32 lapsers, it cor-rectly pinpoints the timing of first lapse in 28 participants. Only 2 false episodes are detected on 20 abstinent days of these participants. When tested on 84 abstinent days from 28 abstainers, the false episode per day is limited to 1/6.",
    	doi = "10.1145/2750858.2806897",
    	url = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2750858.2806897"
    }
    
  9. K Hinderaker, A M Allen, N Tosun, M al'Absi, D Hatsukami and S S Allen.
    The effect of combination oral contraceptives on smoking-related symptomatology during short-term smoking abstinence. Addictive Behavior 41:148–151, 2015. URL BibTeX

    @article{Hinderaker2015,
    	author = "K. Hinderaker and A.M. Allen and N. Tosun and M. al'Absi and D. Hatsukami and S.S. Allen",
    	title = "The effect of combination oral contraceptives on smoking-related symptomatology during short-term smoking abstinence",
    	journal = "Addictive Behavior",
    	year = 2015,
    	volume = 41,
    	pages = "148--151",
    	abstract = "Although an estimated 25% of premenopausal smokers report using oral contraceptives (OC), little is known about how OC use may influence smoking cessation. The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in smoking-related symptomatology during acute smoking abstinence between women on a standardized combination OC (Tri-Sprintec(™)) compared to women not on OCs (no-OC). Participants were women aged 18-40 who smoked ?5 cigarettes/day and reported regular menstrual cycles. Using a controlled cross-over design, participants completed two six-day testing weeks: Low Progesterone Week (LPW; Follicular (F) phase in no-OC or 1st week of pills in OC) and High Progesterone Week (HPW; Luteal (L) phase in no-OC or 3rd week of pills in OC). Each testing week included daily assessment of symptomatology and biochemical confirmation of smoking status. During smoking abstinence, the OC group (n=14) reported significantly lower levels of positive affect (21.56±7.12 vs. 24.57±6.46; ?=3.63",
    	school = "Community Health, Medical School, University of Minnesota, 420 Delaware Street SE, Room A682, Minneapolis, MN 55455, United States. Electronic address: allen001@umn.edu.",
    	url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.10.018"
    }
    
  10. Y Cui, J D Robinson, J M Engelmann, C Y Lam, J A Minnix, M Karam-Hage, D W Wetter, J A Dani, T R Kosten and P M Cinciripini.
    Reinforcement Sensitivity Underlying Treatment-Seeking Smokers' Affect, Smoking Reinforcement Motives, and Affective Responses. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 2015. URL BibTeX

    @article{Cui2015,
    	author = "Y. Cui and J.D. Robinson and J.M. Engelmann and C.Y. Lam and J.A. Minnix and M. Karam-Hage and D.W. Wetter and J.A. Dani and T.R. Kosten and P.M. Cinciripini",
    	title = "Reinforcement Sensitivity Underlying Treatment-Seeking Smokers' Affect, Smoking Reinforcement Motives, and Affective Responses",
    	journal = "Psychology of Addictive Behaviors",
    	year = 2015,
    	abstract = "Nicotine dependence has been suggested to be related to reinforcement sensitivity, which encompasses behavioral predispositions either to avoid aversive (behavioral inhibition) or to approach appetitive (behavioral activation) stimuli. Reinforcement sensitivity may shape motives for nicotine use and offer potential targets for personalized smoking cessation therapy. However, little is known regarding how reinforcement sensitivity is related to motivational processes implicated in the maintenance of smoking. Additionally, women and men differ in reinforcement sensitivity, and such difference may cause distinct relationships between reinforcement sensitivity and motivational processes for female and male smokers. In this study, the authors characterized reinforcement sensitivity in relation to affect, smoking-related reinforcement motives, and affective responses, using self-report and psychophysiological measures, in over 200 smokers before treating them. The Behavioral Inhibition/Activation Scales (BIS/BAS; Carver & White, 1994) was used to measure reinforcement sensitivity. In female and male smokers, BIS was similarly associated with negative affect and negative reinforcement of smoking. However, positive affect was positively associated with BAS Drive scores in male smokers, and this association was reversed in female smokers. BIS was positively associated with corrugator electromyographic reactivity toward negative stimuli and left frontal electroencephalogram alpha asymmetry. Female and male smokers showed similar relationships for these physiological measures. These findings suggest that reinforcement sensitivity underpins important motivational processes (e.g., affect), and gender is a moderating factor for these relationships. Future personalized smoking intervention, particularly among more dependent treatment-seeking smokers, may experiment to target individual differences in reinforcement sensitivity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).",
    	url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/adb0000050"
    }
    
  11. A M Allen, M al'Absi, H Lando and S S Allen.
    Allopregnanolone association with psychophysiological and cognitive functions during acute smoking abstinence in premenopausal women. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 23(1):22–28, 2015. URL BibTeX

    @article{Allen2015,
    	author = "A.M. Allen and M. al'Absi and H. Lando and S.S. Allen",
    	title = "Allopregnanolone association with psychophysiological and cognitive functions during acute smoking abstinence in premenopausal women",
    	journal = "Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology",
    	year = 2015,
    	volume = 23,
    	number = 1,
    	pages = "22--28",
    	abstract = "Nicotine response may predict susceptibility to smoking relapse. Allopregnanolone, a neuroactive steroid metabolized from progesterone, has been shown to be associated with several symptoms of nicotine response. We sought to explore the association between allopregnanolone and response to nicotine during acute smoking abstinence in premenopausal women. Participants completed 2 nicotine-response laboratory sessions, 1 in their follicular (low allopregnanolone) and 1 in their luteal (high allopregnanolone) menstrual phase, on the fourth day of biochemically confirmed smoking abstinence. During the laboratory sessions, participants self-administered a nicotine nasal spray and completed a timed series of cardiovascular, cognitive, and subjective assessments of response to nicotine. The relationships of allopregnanolone with baseline values and change scores of outcome measures were assessed using covariance pattern modeling. Study participants (N = 77) had a mean age of 29.9 (SD = 6.8) years and smoked an average of 12.2 (SD = 4.9) cigarettes per day. Allopregnanolone concentration measured before nicotine administration was positively associated with systolic (? = 0.85",
    	school = "Community Health.",
    	url = "http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0038747"
    }
    
  12. A Al-Bakri, M Jawad, P Salameh, M al'Absi and S Kassim.
    Opportunistic insights into occupational health hazards associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking premises in the United Kingdom. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 16(2):621–626, 2015. URL BibTeX

    @article{Al-Bakri2015,
    	author = "A. Al-Bakri and M. Jawad and P. Salameh and M. al'Absi and S. Kassim",
    	title = "Opportunistic insights into occupational health hazards associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking premises in the United Kingdom",
    	journal = "Asian Pac J Cancer Prev",
    	year = 2015,
    	volume = 16,
    	number = 2,
    	pages = "621--626",
    	abstract = "Smokefree laws aim to protect employees and the public from the dangers of secondhand smoke. Waterpipe premises have significantly increased in number in the last decade, with anecdotal reports of poor compliance with the smokefree law. The literature is bereft of information pertaining to waterpipe premise employees. This study aimed to opportunistically gather knowledge about the occupational health hazards associated with working in waterpipe premises in London, England.Employees from seven convenience-sampled, smokefree-compliant waterpipe premises in London were observed for occupational activities. Opportunistic carbon monoxide (CO) measurements were made among those with whom a rapport had developed. Observations were thematically coded and analysed.Occupational hazards mainly included environmental smoke exposure. Waterpipe-serving employees were required to draw several puffs soon after igniting the coals, thereby providing quality assurance of the product. Median CO levels were 27.5ppm (range 21-55ppm) among these employees. Self-reported employee health was poor, with some suggestion that working patterns and smoke exposure was a contributory factor.The smokefree law in England does not appear to protect waterpipe premise employees from high levels of CO. Continued concerns surrounding chronic smoke exposure may contribute to poor self-reported physical and mental wellbeing.",
    	school = "Queen Mary, University of London, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Institute of Dentistry, London, UK E-mail : s.kassim@qmul.ac.uk.",
    	url = "http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25684497"
    }
    
  13. K L Watkins, S D Regan, N Nguyen, M S Businelle, D E Kendzor, C Y Lam, D Balis, A G Cuevas, Y Cao and L R Reitzel.
    Advancing cessation research by integrating EMA and geospatial methodologies: associations between tobacco retail outlets and real-time smoking urges during a quit attempt. Nicotine Tob Res. 16(Supplement 2):S93-S101, 2014. URL BibTeX

    @article{Watkins2014,
    	author = "K.L. Watkins and S.D. Regan and N. Nguyen and M.S. Businelle and D.E. Kendzor and C.Y. Lam and D. Balis and A.G. Cuevas and Y. Cao and L.R. Reitzel",
    	title = "Advancing cessation research by integrating EMA and geospatial methodologies: associations between tobacco retail outlets and real-time smoking urges during a quit attempt",
    	journal = "Nicotine Tob Res.",
    	year = 2014,
    	volume = 16,
    	number = "Supplement 2",
    	pages = "S93-S101",
    	abstract = "INTRODUCTION: Residential tobacco retail outlet (TRO) density and proximity have been associated with smoking behaviors. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying these relations and their potential relevance outside of the residential setting. This study integrates ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and geo-location tracking to explore real-time associations between exposure to TROs and smoking urges among 47 economically disadvantaged smokers in a cessation trial (59.6% female; 36.2% White). METHODS: EMA data were collected for 1 week postquit via smartphone, which recorded smoking urge strength ? 4 random times daily along with real-time participant location data. For each assessment, the participants' proximity to the closest TRO and the density of TROs surrounding the participant were calculated. Linear mixed model regressions examined associations between TRO variables and smoking urges and whether relations varied based on participants' distance from their home. Covariates included sociodemographics, prequit tobacco dependence, treatment group, and daily smoking status. RESULTS: Main effects were nonsignificant; however, the interaction between TRO proximity and distance from home was considered significant (p = .056). Specifically, closer proximity to TROs was associated with stronger smoking urges ? 1 mile of home (p = .001) but not >1 mile from home (p = .307). Significant associations were attributable to assessments completed at participants' home addresses. All density analyses were nonsignificant. CONCLUSIONS: Technological challenges encountered in this study resulted in a significant amount of missing data, highlighting the preliminary nature of these findings and limiting the inferences that can be drawn. However, results suggest that closer residential proximity to tobacco outlets may trigger stronger urges to smoke among economically disadvantaged smokers trying to quit, perhaps due to enhanced cigarette availability and accessibility. Therefore, limiting tobacco sales in close proximity to residential areas may complement existing tobacco control efforts and facilitate cessation.",
    	url = "http://ntr.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/Suppl_2/S93"
    }
    
  14. D W Stewart, M A Cano, V Correa-Fernández, C A Spears, Y Li, A J Waters, D W Wetter and J I Vidrine.
    Lower health literacy predicts smoking relapse among racially/ethnically diverse smokers with low socioeconomic status. BMC Public Health 14, 2014. URL BibTeX

    @article{Stewart2014,
    	author = "D.W. Stewart and M.A. Cano and V. Correa-Fernández and C.A. Spears and Y. Li and A.J. Waters and D.W. Wetter and J.I. Vidrine",
    	title = "Lower health literacy predicts smoking relapse among racially/ethnically diverse smokers with low socioeconomic status",
    	journal = "BMC Public Health",
    	year = 2014,
    	volume = 14,
    	abstract = "Background: Nearly half of U.S. adults have difficulties with health literacy (HL), which is defined as the ability to adequately obtain, process, and understand basic health information. Lower HL is associated with negative health behaviors and poor health outcomes. Racial/ethnic minorities and those with low socioeconomic status (SES) are disproportionately affected by poor HL. They also have higher smoking prevalence and more difficulty quitting smoking. Thus, lower HL may be uniquely associated with poorer cessation outcomes in this population. Methods: This study investigated the association between HL and smoking cessation outcomes among 200, low-SES, racially/ethnically diverse smokers enrolled in smoking cessation treatment. Logistic regression analyses adjusted for demographics (i.e., age, gender, race/ethnicity, relationship status), SES-related characteristics (i.e., education, income), and nicotine dependence were conducted to investigate associations between HL and smoking relapse at the end of treatment (3 weeks post quit day). Results: Results indicated that smokers with lower HL (score of < 64.5 on the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine [REALM]) were significantly more likely than those with higher HL (score of ≥ 64.5 on the REALM) to relapse by the end of treatment, even after controlling for established predictors of cessation including demographics, SES, and nicotine dependence (OR = 3.26; 95% CI = 1.14, 9.26). Conclusions Findings suggest that lower HL may serve as an independent risk factor for smoking relapse among low-SES, racially/ethnically diverse smokers enrolled in treatment. Future research is needed to investigate longitudinal relations between HL and cessation outcomes and potential mechanisms of this relationship.",
    	url = "http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/14/716"
    }
    
  15. A Parate, M Chiu, C Chadowitz, D Ganesan and E Kalogerakis.
    RisQ: Recognizing Smoking Gestures with Inertial Sensors on a Wristband. In Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services (MobiSys '14). 2014, 149–161. URL BibTeX

    @inproceedings{Parate:2014:RRS:2594368.2594379,
    	author = "A. Parate and M. Chiu and C. Chadowitz and D. Ganesan and E. Kalogerakis",
    	title = "RisQ: Recognizing Smoking Gestures with Inertial Sensors on a Wristband",
    	booktitle = "Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services (MobiSys '14)",
    	year = 2014,
    	pages = "149--161",
    	publisher = "ACM",
    	abstract = "Smoking-induced diseases are known to be the leading cause of death in the United States. In this work, we design RisQ, a mobile solution that leverages a wristband containing a 9-axis inertial measurement unit to capture changes in the orientation of a person's arm, and a machine learning pipeline that processes this data to accurately detect smoking gestures and sessions in real-time. Our key innovations are four-fold: a) an arm trajectory-based method that extracts candidate hand-to-mouth gestures, b) a set of trajectory-based features to distinguish smoking gestures from confounding gestures including eating and drinking, c) a probabilistic model that analyzes sequences of hand-to-mouth gestures and infers which gestures are part of individual smoking sessions, and d) a method that leverages multiple IMUs placed on a person's body together with 3D animation of a person's arm to reduce burden of self-reports for labeled data collection. Our experiments show that our gesture recognition algorithm can detect smoking gestures with high accuracy (95.7%), precision (91%) and recall (81%). We also report a user study that demonstrates that we can accurately detect the number of smoking sessions with very few false positives over the period of a day, and that we can reliably extract the beginning and end of smoking session periods.",
    	url = "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2594368.2594379"
    }
    
  16. C Y Lam, M S Businelle, C J Aigner, J B McClure, L Cofta-Woerpel, P M Cinciripini and D W Wetter.
    Individual and Combined Effects of Multiple High-Risk Triggers on Postcessation Smoking Urge and Lapse. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 16(5):569-575, 2014. URL BibTeX

    @article{Lam2014,
    	author = "C.Y. Lam and M.S. Businelle and C.J. Aigner and J.B. McClure and L. Cofta-Woerpel and P.M. Cinciripini and D.W. Wetter",
    	title = "Individual and Combined Effects of Multiple High-Risk Triggers on Postcessation Smoking Urge and Lapse",
    	journal = "Nicotine and Tobacco Research",
    	year = 2014,
    	volume = 16,
    	number = 5,
    	pages = "569-575",
    	abstract = "Introduction: Negative affect, alcohol consumption, and presence of others smoking have consistently been implicated as risk factors for smoking lapse and relapse. What is not known, however, is how these factors work together to affect smoking outcomes. This paper uses ecological momentary assessment (EMA) collected during the first 7 days of a smoking cessation attempt to test the individual and combined effects of high-risk triggers on smoking urge and lapse. Methods: Participants were 300 female smokers who enrolled in a study that tested an individually tailored smoking cessation treatment. Participants completed EMA, which recorded negative affect, alcohol consumption, presence of others smoking, smoking urge, and smoking lapse, for 7 days starting on their quit date. Results: Alcohol consumption, presence of others smoking, and negative affect were, independently and in combination, associated with increase in smoking urge and lapse. The results also found that the relationship between presence of others smoking and lapse and the relationship between negative affect and lapse were moderated by smoking urge. Conclusions: The current study found significant individual effects of alcohol consumption, presence of other smoking, and negative affect on smoking urge and lapse. Combing the triggers increased smoking urge and the risk for lapse to varying degrees, and the presence of all 3 triggers resulted in the highest urge and lapse risk.",
    	url = "http://ntr.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/5/569.short"
    }
    
  17. B Ho and M B Srivastava.
    Poster: M-Seven: monitoring smoking event by considering time sequence information via iPhone M7 API. In Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services (MobiSys '14). 2014, 372–372. URL BibTeX

    @inproceedings{Ho2014,
    	author = "B. Ho and M.B. Srivastava",
    	title = "Poster: M-Seven: monitoring smoking event by considering time sequence information via iPhone M7 API",
    	booktitle = "Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services (MobiSys '14)",
    	year = 2014,
    	pages = "372--372",
    	abstract = "Smartphones are equipped with various sensors that provide rich context information. By leveraging these sensors, several interesting and practical applications have emerged. Accelerometer data has been used, for example, to detect transportation, exercise activities, etc. A typical approach is to classify activity directly based on features extracted from raw sensing data. Cheng et. al. implemented a different approach by using two-stage classification: the system first detects several sub-behaviors, and uses the combination of attributes to infer higher-level behaviors. Built upon this approach, we focus on exploring the time sequence of activities, which is an underexplored, yet natural and information-rich indicator. In this work, we explore this time sequence concept through detection of smoking events.",
    	url = "http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2594368.2601451"
    }
    
  18. M Á Cano, C Y Lam, M Chen, C E Adams, V Correa-Fernández, D W Stewart, J B McClure, P M Cinciripini and D W Wetter.
    Positive smoking outcome expectancies mediate the association between negative affect and smoking urge among women during a quit attempt.. Experiential and Clinical Psychopharmacology 22(4):322-40, 2014. URL BibTeX

    @article{cano2014positive,
    	author = "M.Á. Cano and C.Y. Lam and M. Chen and C.E. Adams and V. Correa-Fernández and D.W. Stewart and J.B. McClure and P.M. Cinciripini and D.W. Wetter",
    	title = "Positive smoking outcome expectancies mediate the association between negative affect and smoking urge among women during a quit attempt.",
    	journal = "Experiential and Clinical Psychopharmacology",
    	year = 2014,
    	volume = 22,
    	number = 4,
    	pages = "322-40",
    	abstract = "Ecological momentary assessment was used to examine associations between negative affect, positive smoking outcome expectancies, and smoking urge during the first 7 days of a smoking quit attempt. Participants were 302 female smokers who enrolled in an individually tailored smoking cessation treatment study. Multilevel mediation analysis was used to examine the temporal relationship among the following: (a) the effects of negative affect and positive smoking outcome expectancies at 1 assessment point (e.g., time j) on smoking urge at the subsequent time point (e.g., time j + 1) in Model 1; and, (b) the effects of negative affect and smoking urge at time j on positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j + 1 in Model 2. The results from Model 1 showed a statistically significant effect of negative affect at time j on smoking urge at time j + 1, and this effect was mediated by positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j, both within- and between-participants. In Model 2, the within-participant indirect effect of negative affect at time j on positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j + 1 through smoking urge at time j was nonsignificant. However, a statistically significant indirect between-participants effect was found in Model 2. The findings support the hypothesis that urge and positive smoking outcome expectancies increase as a function of negative affect, and suggest a stronger effect of expectancies on urge as opposed to the effect of urge on expectancies.",
    	url = "http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24796849"
    }
    
  19. S S Allen, A M Allen, N Tosun, S Lunos, M al'Absi and D Hatsukami.
    Smoking- and menstrual-related symptomatology during short-term smoking abstinence by menstrual phase and depressive symptoms. Elsevier Addictive Behaviors 39(5):901-906, 2014. URL BibTeX

    @article{allen2014smoking,
    	author = "S.S. Allen and A.M. Allen and N. Tosun and S. Lunos and M. al'Absi and D. Hatsukami",
    	title = "Smoking- and menstrual-related symptomatology during short-term smoking abstinence by menstrual phase and depressive symptoms",
    	journal = "Elsevier Addictive Behaviors",
    	year = 2014,
    	volume = 39,
    	number = 5,
    	pages = "901-906",
    	abstract = "Menstrual phase and depressive symptoms are known to minimize quit attempts in women. Therefore, the influence of these factors on smoking- and menstrual-related symptomatology during acute smoking cessation was investigated in a controlled cross-over lab-study. Participants (n = 147) completed two six-day testing weeks during their menstrual cycle with testing order randomly assigned (follicular vs. luteal). The testing week consisted of two days of ad libitum smoking followed by four days of biochemically verified smoking abstinence. Daily symptomatology measures were collected. Out of the 11 total symptoms investigated, six were significantly associated with menstrual phase and nine were significantly associated with level of depressive symptoms. Two significant interactions were noted indicating that there may be a stronger association between depressive symptoms with negative affect and premenstrual pain during the follicular phase compared to the luteal phase. Overall, these observations suggest that during acute smoking abstinence in premenopausal smokers, there is an association between depressive symptoms and symptomatology whereas menstrual phase appears to have less of an effect. Further study is needed to determine the effect of these observations on smoking cessation outcomes, as well as to define the mechanism of menstrual phase and depressive symptoms on smoking-related symptomatology.",
    	url = "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306460314000318"
    }
    
  20. C E Adams, M Chen, L Guo, C Y Lam, D W Stewart, V Correa-Fernández, M A Cano, W L Heppner, J I Vidrine, Y Li, J S Ahluwalia, P M Cinciripini and D W Wetter.
    Mindfulness predicts lower affective volatility among African Americans during smoking cessation.. Psychology of Addictive Behavior 28(2):580-585, 2014. URL BibTeX

    @article{Adams2014,
    	author = "C.E. Adams and M. Chen and L. Guo and C.Y. Lam and D.W. Stewart and V. Correa-Fernández and M.A. Cano and W.L. Heppner and J.I. Vidrine and Y. Li and J.S. Ahluwalia and P.M. Cinciripini and D.W. Wetter",
    	title = "Mindfulness predicts lower affective volatility among African Americans during smoking cessation.",
    	journal = "Psychology of Addictive Behavior",
    	year = 2014,
    	volume = 28,
    	number = 2,
    	pages = "580-585",
    	abstract = "Recent research suggests that mindfulness benefits emotion regulation and smoking cessation. However, the mechanisms by which mindfulness affects emotional and behavioral functioning are unclear. One potential mechanism, lower affective volatility, has not been empirically tested during smoking cessation. This study examined longitudinal associations among mindfulness and emotional responding over the course of smoking cessation treatment among predominantly low-socioeconomic status (SES) African American smokers, who are at high risk for relapse to smoking and tobacco-related health disparities. Participants (N = 399, 51% female, mean age = 42, 48% with annual income <$10,000) completed a baseline measure of trait mindfulness. Negative affect, positive affect, and depressive symptoms were assessed at five time points during smoking cessation treatment (up to 31 days postquit). Volatility indices were calculated to quantify within-person instability of emotional symptoms over time. Over and above demographic characteristics, nicotine dependence, and abstinence status, greater baseline trait mindfulness predicted lower volatility of negative affect and depressive symptoms surrounding the quit attempt and up to 1 month postquit, ps < 0.05. Although volatility did not mediate the association between greater mindfulness and smoking cessation, these results are the first to show that mindfulness is linked to lower affective volatility (or greater stability) of negative emotions during the course of smoking cessation. The present study suggests that mindfulness is linked to greater emotional stability and augments the study of mindfulness in diverse populations. Future studies should examine the effects of mindfulness-based interventions on volatility and whether lower volatility explains effects of mindfulness-based treatments on smoking cessation.",
    	url = "http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24955676"
    }
    

 

 

 

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